Programming overview

Computational job lifecycle

A computational job (for short: job) is a single run of a non-interactive application. The prototypical example is a run of GAMESS on a single input file.

The GC3Utils commands support the following workflow:

  1. Submit a GAMESS job (with a single input file): ggamess
  2. Monitor the status of the submitted job: gstat
  3. Retrieve the output of a job once it’s finished: gget

Usage and some examples on how to use the mentioned commands are provided in the next sections

Managing jobs with GC3Libs

GC3Libs takes an application-oriented approach to asynchronous computing. A generic Application class provides the basic operations for controlling remote computations and fetching a result; client code should derive specialized sub-classes to deal with a particular application, and to perform any application-specific pre- and post-processing.

The generic procedure for performing computations with GC3Libs is the following:

  1. Client code creates an instance of an Application sub-class.
  2. Asynchronous computation is started by submitting the application object; this associates the application with an actual (possibly remote) computational job.
  3. Client code can monitor the state of the computational job; state handlers are called on the application object as the state changes.
  4. When the job is done, the final output is retrieved and a post-processing method is invoked on the application object.

At this point, results of the computation are available and can be used by the calling program.

The Application class (and its sub-classes) alow client code to control the above process by:

  1. Specifying the characteristics (computer program to run, input/output files, memory/CPU/duration requirements, etc.) of the corresponding computational job. This is done by passing suitable values to the Application constructor. See the Application constructor documentation for a detailed description of the parameters.

  2. Providing methods to control the “life-cycle” of the associated computational job: start, check execution state, stop, retrieve a snapshot of the output files. There are actually two different interfaces for this, detailed below:

    1. A passive interface: a Core or a Engine object is used to start/stop/monitor jobs associated with the given application. For instance:

      a = GamessApplication(...)
      # create a `Core` object; only one instance is needed
      g = Core(...)
      # start the remote computation
      # periodically monitor job execution
      # retrieve output when the job is done

      The passive interface gives client code full control over the lifecycle of the job, but cannot support some use cases (e.g., automatic application re-start).

      As you can see from the above example, the passive interface is implemented by methods in the Core and Engine classes (they implement the same interface). See those classes documentation for more details.

    2. An active interface: this requires that the Application object be attached to a Core or Engine instance:

      a = GamessApplication(...)
      # create a `Core` object; only one instance is needed
      g = Core(...)
      # tell application to use the active interface
      # start the remote computation
      # periodically monitor job execution
      # retrieve output when the job is done

      With the active interface, application objects can support automated restart and similar use-cases.

      When an Engine object is used instead of a Core one, the job life-cycle is automatically managed, providing a fully asynchronous way of executing computations.

      The active interface is implemented by the Task class and all its descendants (including Application).

  3. Providing “state transition methods” that are called when a change in the job execution state is detected; those methods can implement application specific behavior, like restarting the computational job with changed input if the alloted duration has expired but the computation has not finished. In particular, a postprocess method is called when the final output of an application is available locally for processing.

    The set of “state transition methods” currently implemented by the Application class are: new(), submitted(), running(), stopped(), terminated() and postprocess(). Each method is called when the execution state of an application object changes to the corresponding state; see each method’s documentation for exact information.

In addition, GC3Libs provides collection classes, that expose interfaces 2. and 3. above, allowing one to control a set of applications as a single whole. Collections can be nested (i.e., a collection can hold a mix of Application and TaskCollection objects), so that workflows can be implemented by composing collection objects.

Note that the term computational job (or just job, for short) is used here in a quite general sense, to mean any kind of computation that can happen independently of the main thread of the calling program. GC3Libs currently provide means to execute a job as a separate process on the same computer, or as a batch job on a remote computational cluster.

Execution model of GC3Libs applications

An Application can be regarded as an abstraction of an independent asynchronous computation, i.e., a GC3Libs’ Application behaves much like an independent UNIX process (but it can actually run on a separate remote computer). Indeed, GC3Libs’ Application objects mimic the POSIX process model: Application are started by a parent process, run independently of it, and need to have their final exit code and output reaped by the calling process.

The following table makes the correspondence between POSIX processes and GC3Libs’ Application objects explicit.

os module function Core function purpose
exec Core.submit start new job
kill(..., SIGTERM) Core.kill terminate executing job
wait(..., WNOHANG) Core.update_job_state get job status
Core.fetch_output retrieve output


  1. With GC3Libs, it is not possible to send an arbitrary signal to a running job: jobs can only be started and stopped (killed).
  2. Since POSIX processes are always executed on the local machine, there is no equivalent of the GC3Libs fetch_output.

Application exit codes

POSIX encodes process termination information in the “return code”, which can be parsed through os.WEXITSTATUS, os.WIFSIGNALED, os.WTERMSIG and relative library calls.

Likewise, GC3Libs provides each Application object with an execution.returncode attribute, which is a valid POSIX “return code”. Client code can therefore use os.WEXITSTATUS and relatives to inspect it; convenience attributes execution.signal and execution.exitcode are available for direct access to the parts of the return code. See Run.returncode() for more information.

However, GC3Libs has to deal with error conditions that are not catered for by the POSIX process model: for instance, execution of an application may fail because of an error connecting to the remote execution cluster.

To this purpose, GC3Libs encodes information about abnormal job termination using a set of pseudo-signal codes in a job’s execution.returncode attribute: i.e., if termination of a job is due to some grid/batch system/middleware error, the job’s os.WIFSIGNALED(app.execution.returncode) will be True and the signal code (as gotten from os.WTERMSIG(app.execution.returncode)) will be one of those listed in the Run.Signals documentation.

Application execution states

At any given moment, a GC3Libs job is in any one of a set of pre-defined states, listed in the table below. The job state is always available in the .execution.state instance property of any Application or Task object; see Run.state() for detailed information.

GC3Libs’ Job state purpose can change to
NEW Job has not yet been submitted/started (i.e., gsub not called) SUBMITTED (by gsub)
SUBMITTED Job has been sent to execution resource RUNNING, STOPPED
STOPPED Trap state: job needs manual intervention (either user- or sysadmin-level) to resume normal execution TERMINATED (by gkill), SUBMITTED (by miracle)
RUNNING Job is executing on remote resource TERMINATED
UNKNOWN Job info not found or lost track of job (e.g., network error or invalid job ID) any other state
TERMINATED Job execution is finished (correctly or not) and will not be resumed None: final state

When an Application object is first created, its .execution.state attribute is assigned the state NEW. After a successful start (via Core.submit() or similar), it is transitioned to state SUBMITTED. Further transitions to RUNNING or STOPPED or TERMINATED state, happen completely independently of the creator program: the Core.update_job_state() call provides updates on the status of a job. (Somewhat like the POSIX wait(..., WNOHANG) system call, except that GC3Libs provide explicit RUNNING and STOPPED states, instead of encoding them into the return value.)

The STOPPED state is a kind of generic “run time error” state: a job can get into the STOPPED state if its execution is stopped (e.g., a SIGSTOP is sent to the remote process) or delayed indefinitely (e.g., the remote batch system puts the job “on hold”). There is no way a job can get out of the STOPPED state automatically: all transitions from the STOPPED state require manual intervention, either by the submitting user (e.g., cancel the job), or by the remote systems administrator (e.g., by releasing the hold).

The UNKNOWN state is a temporary error state: whenever GC3Pie is unable to get any information on the job, its state move to UNKNOWN. It is usually related to a (hopefully temporary) failure while accessing the remote resource, because of a network error or because the resource is not correctly configured. After the underlying cause of the error is fixed and GC3Pie is able again to get information on the job, its state will change to the proper state.

The TERMINATED state is the final state of a job: once a job reaches it, it cannot get back to any other state. Jobs reach TERMINATED state regardless of their exit code, or even if a system failure occurred during remote execution; actually, jobs can reach the TERMINATED status even if they didn’t run at all!

A job that is not in the NEW or TERMINATED state is said to be a “live” job.

Computational job specification

One of the purposes of GC3Libs is to provide an abstraction layer that frees client code from dealing with the details of job execution on a possibly remote cluster. For this to work, it necessary to specify job characteristics and requirements, so that the GC3Libs scheduler can select an appropriate computational resource for executing the job.

GC3Libs Application provide a way to describe computational job characteristics (program to run, input and output files, memory/duration requirements, etc.) loosely patterned after ARC’s xRSL language.

The description of the computational job is done through keyword parameters to the Application constructor, which see for details. Changes in the job characteristics after an Application object has been constructed are not currently supported.